The area is the oldest part of Ankara and contains many examples of traditional architecture. The main sight of Ulus is Castle, which has guarded the city for centuries, and now is a symbol of Ankara and its history. Although it is not exactly known when the castle was built, it is commonly believed to have been built by the Romans, then repaired and expanded by the Selcuks. It towers 110 meters above Bentdere Creek (Hatip Creek) which runs along its base. There are two parts, an inner and an outer castle, with over 20 towers. The outer castle encloses the old city of Ankara within its heart-shaped walls. The four-level inner castle is made partly of Ankara stone and partly of stones gathered from other structures. The two large gates of the inner castle are called the Outer Gate and the Castle Gate. The towers within the castle vary between 14-16 metres in height. Today within the castle walls there are a number of Ottoman-style houses dating as far back as the 17th century.
The Temple of Augustus was built by the Emperor whose name it bears. Long after his death, his Byzantine descendants turned it into a Christian church. Close to Temple there is the Haci Bayram Mosque - one of the oldest mosques in the city, dating originally from the 15th century, and still in use.
Another highlight of the Old Town is the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations - one of the exceptional museums in the world. Its designed to emphasise the pre-classical civilisations of Anatolia, and contains relics and artefacts from various digs around Turkey. There are special collections from the Hittite, Urartian, and Late Hittite eras. Among the most fascinating items on display are the contents of the Great Tumulus at Gordium, including some very fine Phrygian woodcarvings in astonishingly good condition after 2,700 years. Other things to look out for include Neolithic frescoes from Çatalhöyük, vast Hittite stone sculptures, and the emblems of the Bronze Age reindeer gods found in Alaçahöyük.